Time Line

The Historical Timeline Of The Middlemore Homes

Progress of the HomesReports & Legislation
1834 Poor Law Amendment Act setting up workhouses
1850 Emigration of Children Act permitted assisted emigration of workhouse children
1869 Maria Rye’s first party to Canada including some workhouse children1869 Canada Immigration Act required medical examination of all poor immigrants
1870 Annie McPherson’s first party of workhouse children to Canada
1872 John Middlemore established The Emigration Homes for Gutter Children
May 1873 first Middlemore party of 29 children to Ontario, Canada
1875 Opening of Guthrie Home in London, Ontario as reception centre1875 Doyle Report. Workhouse emigration stopped
1878 newly built Homes opened in St Luke’s Rd1883 Memorandum resulted in resumption of emigration by workhouse children
1885 Move to the Maritimes. Children settled in province of new Brunswickincreasing influence of eugenics theories
1888 Canadian debates in parliament resulting in cancellation of assisted passage policy for juvenile immigrants
1889 a medical certificate now needed for each child immigrant
1890 Closure of Guthrie Home1890s increased discussion of Eugenics in Nova Scotia
1892 Last Middlemore party to Ontario
1893 All children from now on emigrated to the Maritime provinces, initially received in temporary accommodation in Halifax and at Hillfoot Farm
1895 Hillfoot Farm burnt down
1897 Fairview Receiving Home opens in Halifax
1917 -19 No shipments of children because of WW1
(Around 63 Ex Middlemore boys died in WW1)
Dec 1917 Halifax Explosion. Fairview Home damaged
1920 First post war Middlemore party.
Arrived in Quebec and distributed by train
1922 British Empire Settlement Act encouraging 8 to 16 year olds emigration to the colonies
1924 Death of John Middlemore 1924 The Bondfield Report
1925 British and Canadian laws forbid unaccompanied emigration of under 14’s
1926 First Middlemore party to Australia in association with Fairbridge
1926 to 1932 small numbers of children taken to the Maritimes, chiefly to New Brunswick
1927 McGregor Report
1928 Opening of Pier 21 in Halifax
1929 Opening of new Homes at Selly Oak
1930 Last party of Middlemore girls sent directly and indentured
1931 Paul Cadbury becomes Chair of Homes Committee
1932 Last party of Middlemore boys sent to be indentured1932 Canada suspended assisted immigration
1935 First Middlemore party to Fairbridge Farm School in British Columbia
1935 Middlemore agreement with Fairbridge to recruit from “Special Areas” in northern England, S Wales and Scotland
1941 Closure of Fairview
1948 last Middlemore emigrant to Canada1948 Children Act in Britain, Local authorities now responsible for children needing protection.
1949 Closure of the Fairbridge Farm School in Canada
End of association with Fairbridge
Australia ceased accepting immigrant children
1955 Selly Oak buildings sold. Became Westhill College
1975 Guthrie House burnt down as Fire training exercise